Posted in Miscellaneous

Hymnal Journaling: How Great Thou Art

Hi Sweet Friends,

Here’s our latest hymnal journaling….or I think I went a little wild and it became more of a mixed media project!! 😉 Too much fun!!! I pray you are encouraged by Mr. Boberg’s amazement at what an awesome God we have!!!

So print your sheet music below and lets get crafty while meditating on the words of the scripture we are blessed with this lesson and then the hymn itself.

You can also print out the scripture to post through out your home, car, work, etc. And continue to meditate on the Word…even Bible Journal the scritpure as well!! 🙂

Please tag me in your photos (#JosephinesDesigns)!! I’d love to see your beautiful praise to God in your creativity!!!

What a song of praise to our Lord!!!

Love and prayers….k 🙂

Hymnal Journaling/Mixed Media: How Great Thou Art p.1
Hymnal Journaling/Mixed Media: How Great Thou Art p.2

History of Hymns: “How Great Thou Art”

Carl Boberg
Carl Boberg

By C. Michael Hawn

How Great Thou Art
by Stuart K. Hine
The United Methodist Hymnal, No. 77

As Carlton Young was preparing The United Methodist Hymnal, a United Methodist Reporter poll revealed that “How Great Thou Art” headed the list of hymns that should be retained in the then-forthcoming 1989 hymnal.

As the poll was published, John A. Lovelace, Reporter editor emeritus, wrote, “What no previous survey had found, though, is that ‘How Great Thou Art’ may also be United Methodism’s least-liked hymn” (The United Methodist Reporter, August 23, 1985).

Earlier, when the hymn was reluctantly included in the 1966 Methodist Hymnal (as most-requested hymn), Dr. Young notes that many complained that “the church’s official hymnal would bring respectability to the theme song of the Billy Graham Crusades . . .. Others brought equally uninformed and unfair criticism on the Methodist Publishing House for presumably dictating editorial policy and cheapening the church’s official hymnal” (Young, 1993, 409).

Many who fervently sing this hymn throughout the world each Sunday in myriad translations have no idea of the polarity of feeling that exists around it. Perhaps both sides would benefit from some historical perspective.

The origins of this hymn may be found with Swedish pastor Carl Boberg around 1886. Boberg (1859-1940) was a leading evangelist of his day and the editor of an influential Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden periodical Sanningsvittnet (“Witness of the Truth”). Boberg served in the Swe­dish par­lia­ment and published sev­er­al vol­umes of po­e­try, including hymns. He al­so helped com­pile the first two hymn­als for the Swe­dish Co­ve­nant Church.

Boberg’s inspiration is said to have come one day when he was caught in a thunderstorm on the southeastern coast of Sweden. The violence of the storm followed by the return of the sun and the singing of birds left him falling to his knees in awe. Soon he penned the nine stanzas of the original version in Swedish beginning with “O Store Gud, nar jag den varld beskader.” Several years later, Boberg unexpectedly heard his poem sung by a congregation to an old Swedish folk melody.

The subsequent history of the poem is somewhat unclear, but interesting. An earlier literal English translation of four of the stanzas by E. Gustav Johnson in 1925 began “O mighty God, when I behold the wonder.” This version never caught on, however, though it may be found in some hymnals. The first stanza and refrain follow:

O mighty God, when I behold the wonder
Of nature’s beauty, wrought by words of Thine,
And how Thou leadest all from realms up yonder,
Sustaining earthly life in love benign,

With rapture filled, my soul Thy name would laud,
O mighty God! O mighty God!
With rapture filled, my soul Thy name would laud,
O mighty God! O mighty God!

In 1907, Manfred von Glehn (1867-1924) translated the text from the Swedish into German. It became the hymn, “Wie gross bist du.” In 1927, a Russian version by the evangelical leader Ivan S. Prokhanoff (1896-1935) appeared in Kimvali (Cymbals), a collection published by the Baptist Press in Poland. English missionary Stuart K. Hine (1899-1989) and his wife heard the Russian version sung as a vocal duet in the Ukraine.

As the Hine couple crossed into Sub-Carpathian Russia, the mountain scenery brought back the memory of this song. The first three stanzas were composed while in the Carpathian Mountains. When war broke out, Hine and his wife were forced to return to England in 1939. They used the first three stanzas in evangelistic endeavors during the “Blitz years.” The fourth stanza was added after the war.

Baptist hymnologist William Reynolds cites comments by George Beverly Shea (1909-2013) on the hymn’s introduction in the United States through the Billy Graham Crusades: “We first sang [it] in the Toronto, Canada, Crusade of 1955. Cliff Barrows [1923-2016] and his large volunteer choir assisted in the majestic refrains. Soon after, we used it in the ‘Hour of Decision’ [radio broadcasts] and in American crusades. In the New York meetings of 1957 the choir joined me in singing it ninety-three times!” (Reynolds, 1976, 162).

The first two stanzas establish the grandeur of God’s creation while the refrain establishes our response, “How great thou art!” In stanza three, the God of the natural created order continues the creative act by sending God’s Son to redeem a lost humanity. With this stanza, the primary theological perspective shifts from creation to atonement. While the first two stanzas express humanity’s awe at the natural created order, this is not the ultimate goal of this hymn. Human sin has marred the gift of the Creator. The vivid description of nature in the first two stanzas finds its fulfillment in heaven or when we escape the earth.

The final stanza, however, may be seen as the completion of the story of creation and human redemption on an eschatological note; the fulfillment of creation takes place in heaven. Thus, this hymn embodies the breadth of the redemption story from Genesis to Revelation. Given the sweeping and shifting theological territory covered in this hymn, the refrain ties all the themes together with the reiteration of the hymn’s central premise four times, “How great thou art!”

After an extended court battle to determine the ownership of the text and music, Hine’s English words and his musical setting were assigned to Manna Music. The publisher was able to show that the 1953 version of the gospel hymn was the “first, final and fixed form of the hymn” (Young, 1993, 410).

The reader may notice that the text of the first stanza is not included in this article. “How Great Thou Art” is one of the most expensive hymns to include in a hymnal, costing $2,000 for a permission fee for The United Methodist Hymnal. In spite of this, one can find numerous websites that provide the entire text (obviously without the publisher’s permission) with accompanying music. I have heard the hymn sung in Sweden using Boberg’s original version. The Swedish version is understated and sung in strict rhythm. This version is no less fervently felt, however, by Swedish Christians. The versions sung in the Graham Crusades are a vastly different experience from those I have heard in Sweden. Conducted by Cliff Barrows, the Crusade renditions featured soaring lines with fermatas on the last phrase of the refrain, and the resonant bass voice of George Beverly Shea. These were a part of my sacred soundscape as I grew up seeing the televised crusades (in black and white) and hearing them over and over again on LP vinyl records.

Recordings by numerous popular recording artists may be found on YouTube, but perhaps none are as memorable as the rendition by Elvis Presley (1935-1977) on his farewell tour in 1977 weeks before his death.

In honor of the roots of this hymn, Carl Boberg’s picture appears with this article.

Article Credit:

Author: Carl Gustav Boberg

Boberg, Carl Gustaf. (Mönsterås, Sweden, August 16, 1859–January 7, 1940, Kalmar). Swedish Covenant. Bible school at Kristinehamn. Editor of Sanningsvittnet 1890-1916, organ of the Evangelical National Foundation. Member of the Swedish Parliament, 1912-1931. Popular speaker and appreciated writer. Published several collections of poetry and a number of hymns. Member of committee responsible for first two hymnals of the Swedish Covenant. Author of “Jesus, Jesus, O det ordet” (“Jesus, Jesus, Name Most Precious”); “Min själ berömmer Gud med fröjd” (My Soul Now Magnifies the Lord”); “O store Gud” (“O Mighty God”). The text now known as “How Great Thou Art” is an English translation of a Russian version based on an earlier German translation.

Translator: Stuart K. Hine

Stuart K. Hine was born in 1899 in Great Britain. In much of Stuart’s earlier years he and his wife were missionaries in the Western Ukraine of Russia, where they evangelized as Christian workers and singers. In 1931, Stuart K. Hine and his wife returned to Britain and conducted gospel campaigns throughout Great Britain. During those years, Stuart published many song books and wrote many of his beloved gospel songs. Stuart retired from the active ministry but continued to publish his song books and his music and contributed the majority of his income to various missionary endeavors around the world…Stuart K. Hine’s most popular composition is “How Great Thou Art,” which is recognized in many polls as the number one Hymn in America.

Article credit:

Psalm 121New American Standard Bible

The Lord, the Keeper of Israel.

A Song of Ascents.

121 I will raise my eyes to the mountains;
From where will my help come?
My help comes from the Lord,
Who made heaven and earth.
He will not allow your foot to slip;
He who watches over you will not slumber.
Behold, He who watches over Israel
Will neither slumber nor sleep.

The Lord is your [a]protector;
The Lord is your shade on your right hand.
The sun will not [b]beat down on you by day,
Nor the moon by night.
The Lord will [c]protect you from all evil;
He will keep your soul.
The Lord will [d]guard your going out and your coming in
From this time and forever.

Hebrews 12:1-2New American Standard Bible

Jesus, the Example

12 Therefore, since we also have such a great cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let’s rid ourselves of every obstacle and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let’s run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking only at Jesus, the [a]originator and perfecter of the faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

1 Thessalonians 4:16-17New American Standard Bible

16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a [a]shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 Then we who are alive, who remain, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord.

How great thou art - How Great Thou Art Swedish folk melody Sheet music for  Piano (Piano Duo) |
Posted in Miscellaneous


Hey Sweet Friends,

The sun shines here today!!!!
We are thawing out!!!!

A little business for YouTube channel….we will take at least today and possibly through the weekend off to attend to issues related to the winter storms. Thank you for your kindness and patience!!! Our family is doing well and we give God all the glory and praise!!! As well we stand with, mourn and are praying for all those experiencing loss of life and damage during the storms.

Please continue to pray. Lots and lots of Texans have water that is not drinkable or none at all. Power is still out in areas. And initially areas could not be reached with emergency supplies/water due to severely iced roads.

All deliveries to grocery stores, to fuel, to mail, etc delayed. And so though we have sunshine today, we are far from returning to normal throughout the state. The governor is pushing through major investigations as to how things failed and how do we assure safety in any possible future events.

Please continue to pray for wisdom and patience. There is much damaged and people are tired. And also remember many are also battling the pandemic restrictions. Some are sick with covid….therefore limited on going out to seek help or supplies.

Now that said…in true Texas spirit, people were helping everywhere!!! I am so thankful for every kind heart and every able person that served in this crisis….from Moms and Dads caring for and keeping their families safe…to adult children checking in and caring for aging family members…to neighbors helping neighbors. From linemen and plumbers helping in the failed services that are imperative in such a servere weather…to the military, medical, police, fire, emts and more who served beyond their job description….again!

May the Lord keep and bless each of you in the works of your hands!! We forever thank each of you for your service!!!

PTL from Washington DC to FEMA to many of the 49 states to our state and local helping financially, sending supplies and coming to help to our people!!! Texas is beginning to recover!! Some roads are still unable to be traveled and more warming centers are opening statewide. And water is making it in now for distribution!! We are finally showing movement!!!! We are blessed!!!!

Now, there have been many comments about how southerners don’t know what to do…or can’t handle”real” winter. I have literally heard this first hand this last week….
Just an encouragement said in love of the realities here in the southern states….again said in much love🥰…

We do not have enough plows to keep all roads cleared or salted/sanded….usually never needed. The houses/plumbing are not built with the same level of insulation therefore things get cold quick and become damaged easily. Vehicles are not winterized with a more concentrated antifreeze, proper windshield fluid, to all weather tires. All rarely if ever needed. We weatherize the other way…. ready for severe heat.

And yes, many don’t even own the heavier winter wear as it is not needed unless you ranch or farm these days. Basic heavy winter supplies are not only not usually needed…or even available locally.

And finally Texas like most states these days has begun relying on alternative energy. This energy which failed in this winter storm…now solidifying the return to more fossil fuels to keep this state running in emergent events. Hence such storms literally closed down the state.

So no worries or hard feelings….just a little insight from a born and raised…even south Texan. We can definitely handle the hot heat of summers that many seem to dislike….no worries. That’s how Texas Tough or as in hurricane Harvey….Texas Strong phrase was coined. Like most states we know what we live….this year we just were given a little more than usual winter.

And trying to look at things with the glass half full….so many little ones who have never seen snow had two snows to learn how to sled this winter!!! They were creatively using cardboard boxes, dinner trays or even trash can lids!!! So many beautiful smiles and lovely memories for these little ones. Yes we look to find joy in the journey!!

Soooooo many lessons learned by all!!!
So keep your pantries stocked. Keep extra water…drinking, hand washing and water to flush toilets stocked. Keep a propane stove or bbq on your patio if you have an electric stove/oven to be able to cook if loss of power. If you have a fireplace, have a good stash of firewood, starters, matches at all times. Be sure you have candles, flashlights or oil lamps with refill oil to last a long while if power is off. And have all phone numbers of neighbors and family readily available to be able to check on each other.

Be an encouragement as much as possible!!! 😊

Thank you to ALL who are praying, sending help and sending funds to help our state!!!! 🥰
We thank the Lord for ALL of you!!!
Spring is coming!!!

Love and prayers…k💗

Posted in Miscellaneous

TX Historic Winter Snow 2/2021

Hey Sweet Friends,

10 degrees and 5+ inches of snow. Bright and beautiful!!! We still have power and our wood supply is holding for the next few days. Praying all gets back to regular temps soon.

Praying for those without power. Rolling blackouts in TX trying to conserve power here in TX. Definitely not the norm.
And tonight gets colder….single digits.

Please pray for all the hard hit areas. Some families in central TX have been without power over 7 hours already…and lots without even fireplaces. Homeless shelters are set up but roads are closed as there aren’t plows and road prep here in place. Ambulances have had trouble on the roads…praying for all service people!!🙏

How are you in your area?

Please reply so we can all begin praying specifically for each other!!! 🙏🙏🙏

I rushed to load a series of videos for the week until late last night. And accidentally loaded 2 PWM’s for today. Ooops!!! Hoping to video 1 more for y’all.

I went ahead with the Junk Journal series for all snowed in. It is loaded for the week. It finished around 3 am. I will be reviewing all today….Lord willing. 🙏

Not sure if I can get all the regular videos filmed or uploaded….but hoping y’all enjoy the jj series so far!!! I hope to finish the jj today!!! 🙏

Please stay in if possible…if you are in the affected areas. Stay warm and safe!!!!

Love and prayers to everyone,
k 💗

PS: if you look in the far left corner of the picture….farm fields of white snow for miles!!! Cross country skiers delight 😉 Lol!!
And yes poor Mary, Joseph and Jesus are still out. When covid hit my Sweet Husband set them up until resolution of the illness. It’s been a long year for them. They continue to rough the storms.

Posted in Miscellaneous

Hymnal Journaling: To God Be The Glory

Hey Sweet Friends,

Here are the resources for last week’s video.

I pray you are encouraged and love this hymn, it’s author and history as much as I do!!

Be encouraged Sweet Friends!!!

Love and prayers….k 🙂

Pt. 1
Pt. 2

To God Be The Glory


“To God Be the Glory” celebrates the greatness of God and calls upon an appreciation for the wondrous things “He hath done.” It is a glorious hymn to be sung rejoicefully in the spirit of gratitude.

The Story Behind To God Be the Glory

“To God Be the Glory” is a hymn with lyrics by Fanny Crosby and music by William Howard Doane, first printed in 1875.  It appears to have been created around 1872 but was published in 1875 in Robert Lowry and Doane’s hymn compilation, “Brightest and Best.In 1954, the song leader for Billy Graham was given a copy with the suggestion that “To God be the Glory” be included in the songbook for the London Crusade. It was so well-loved that he included it again later that year in the Crusade in Nashville, Tennessee. The audience responded enthusiastically and from that time on, he used it frequently. With this exposure, the hymn quickly became well-known to Christians worldwide and is printed in most modern hymnals.


Scripture References:
st. 1 = Ps. 126:2-3, John 3:16, 1 John 2:2, Matt. 7:13-14
ref. = John 14:6

Prodigious writer of hymn texts, Fanny J. Crosby (b. Putnam County, NY, 1820; d. Bridgeport, CT, 1915) wrote this hymn, which was first published with Doane’s tune in Songs of Devotion (1870). This text and “Blessed Assurance” (490) are among the best-known and most-loved hymn texts of the thousands Crosby produced. Initially ignored in the United States, the hymn was sung in British churches after its inclusion in Ira D. Sankey’s Sacred Songs and Solos (1903). Because of its use in the Billy Graham Crusades beginning in 1954, the hymn gained great popularity in Britain and Australia as well as in the United States.

In contrast to many gospel hymns (including the majority of Crosby’s texts), “To God Be the Glory” directs our attention away from personal experience to the glory of God. God so loved the world that he gave us his Son to make atonement for sin (st. 1); all who believe in Christ will receive pardon (st. 2) and will rejoice now and through all eternity because of the “great things he has done” (st. 3). The refrain borrows its praise in part from the Old Testament psalms. The phrase “when Jesus we see” (st. 3) must have meant something special to Crosby, who was blinded when she was seven weeks old.

Fanny (Francis) Jane Crosby attended the New York City School for the Blind, where she later became a teacher. She began writing poetry when she was eight and publishing several volumes, such as A Blind Girl, and Other Poems (1844). Married to musician Alexander Van Alstyne, who was also blind, Crosby began writing hymn texts when she was in her forties. She published at least eight thousand hymns (some under various pseudonyms; see PHH 427); at times she was under contract to her publisher to write three hymns a week and often wrote six or seven a day. Crosby’s texts were set to music by prominent gospel song composers such as William B. Bradbury (PHH 114), William H. Doane, Robert S. Lowry (PHH 396), Ira D. Sankey (PHH 73), and William J. Kirkpatrick (PHH 188). Her hymns were distributed widely and popularized at evangelistic services in both America and Great Britain. Crosby was one of the most respected women of her era and the friend of many prominent persons, including presidents of the United States.

Psalm 126:2-3

New American Standard Bible

Then our mouth was filled with laughter
And our tongue with joyful shouting;
Then they said among the nations,
“The Lord has done great things for them.”
The Lord has done great things for us;
We are joyful.

John 3:16

New American Standard Bible

16 “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only Son, so that everyone who believes in Him will not perish, but have eternal life.

1 John 2:2

New American Standard Bible

and He Himself is the [a]propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

Matthew 7:13-14

New American Standard Bible

The Narrow and Wide Gates

13 “Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is broad that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it. 14 For the gate is narrow and the way is constricted that leads to life, and there are few who find it.

1 John 2:2

New American Standard Bible

and He Himself is the [a]propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

Posted in Miscellaneous

February Fun Has Begun On YT

Hey Sweet Friends,

This is an action packed month!!! And how much fun!!

Our LOVE: BIBLE JOURNAL has begun. Be sure to go watch the videos on YouTube.

And I will also list them below.

And I also promised a February Scripture Writing info to enjoy writing God’s Word….and in the class on YouTube there is also scripture writing too!!

For the sheet I shared for scripture writing for:

Inscribe The Word: The Promises of God Series

28 Promises For February 2021

Psalm 32:10 New American Standard Bible

10 The sorrows of the wicked are many,
But the one who trusts in the Lord, goodness will surround him.

  1. Malachi 4:1-2
  2. Malachi 4:3-4
  3. Romans 8:31-32
  4. John 14:17-18
  5. Exodus 12:12-13
  6. Deuteronomy 28:1-2
  7. Job 22:21-23
  8. Isaiah 41:10-12
  9. Zechariah 13:8-9
  10. Acts 22:14-16
  11. Isaiah 44:3-4
  12. Genesis 13:14-17
  13. Deuteronomy 28:3-4
  14. Psalm 32:10-11
  15. Psalm 115:9-12
  16. Hosea 11:8-9
  17. 2 Chronicles 15:5-7
  18. Psalm 145:17-19
  19. Nahum 1:12-13
  20. Isaiah 58:10-11
  21. Psalm 115:13-15
  22. 1 Samuel 17:36-37
  23. John 15:5-7
  24. John 15:8-10
  25. Isaiah 61:6-7
  26. Proverbs 12:18-20
  27. Psalm 112:5-8
  28. Hebrews 10:32-35

Scripture from:


Posted in decorative travel journal, Journals, Junk Journals, organization, Paper crafting, Plan With Me, RedAspenLoveNails

On YouTube Lately…

Hey Sweet Friends,,

I have been a bit behind posting here on the blog. Lots of things happening.

I hope you enjoy and are encouraged by these videos.

Please come visit and subscribe if you would like. You can also click the little bell by the subscribe button to know when new videos are uploaded.

Love and prayers Sweet Friends….k 🙂

Unboxing: A Beautiful Gift Of #RedAspenLoveNails #ThankYou

Unboxing: #RedAspenLoveNails Gorgeous-ness #SelfCare #AffordableBeautifulNails

Unboxing: FUN!!!

Plan With Me: In My Personal#Prima Planner

GORGEOUSLY Crafted Happy Mail…Thank You!!!!

Plan With Me: In My Standard #TN Pt. 1

Plan With Me: In My Standard Planner Pt. 2

PWM: January #SubscriptionBox & #ClassicMinnie&Mickey #HappyPlanner Monthly 2021 pt1

PWM: January #SubscriptionBox & #ClassicMinnie&Mickey #HappyPlanner Monthly 2021 pt2

PWM: January #SubscriptionBox & #ClassicMinnie&Mickey #HappyPlanner Weekly 2021 pt1

PWM: January #SubscriptionBox & #ClassicMinnie&Mickey #HappyPlanner Weekly 2021 pt2

UNBOXING: The Stamps of Life Card Kit for January 2021


Unboxing: One Little Word/AlieEdwards

UNBOXING: #Archer&Olive and #ScrappingWithMe…GORGEOUS Blue Fern Studios Paper

PWM: In My #ClassicMinnieMickey #HappyPlanner Pt. 1

PWM: In My #ClassicMinnieMickey #HappyPlanner Pt. 2

PWM: ‘Hello Winter’ In My #Prima Personal #TravelersNotebook

PWM: #WinterNights In My #TravelersNotebook Monthly Jan. 2021 Pt.1

PWM: In My Standard #TraverlersNotebook Monthly Jan. 21 Pt. 2

Posted in Encouragements, Journal, Journals, organization, Paper crafting, Plan With Me, planning, travel journal, YouTube Videos

Today’s YouTube: PWM: In My Standard #TraverlersNotebook

Pt. 1

Pt. 2

Hey Sweet Friends,

I hope you enjoyed these two videos and were encouraged today!!!

Today is HumpBack Wednesday at So be sure to go take a look at any specials today!

Here is a code for 15% off your purchase excluding specials and subscription boxes:


Also, please put into the comment box so they know who sent you:


I hope you find some beautiful planner kits to help keep you organized and your planners encouraging you with their fun and beauty!!

Thank you Sweet Friends, Be Safe, Love and Prayers…k 🙂

Posted in Miscellaneous, Plan With Me

Today’s Videos: PLAN WITH ME: In My New #Minnie&Mickey #HappyPlanner Jan. Monthly & Set Up 2021 Pt. 1 & 2

Hey Sweet Friends,

Today’s Planner Videos are up on my YouTube!!! And I am also having a great time setting up my Classic Minnie/Mickey Happy Planner!!

I use my GORGEOUS January Subscription Box. This is an amazing planner sticker/papercrafting box!! These kits are such a value! I use them in several of my planners each month and I also use them in my papercrafting projects! I absolutely love the quality and the beauty of each one.

You can sign up at by the 10th of each month for the following month kit.

Here’s the link:

And the amazingly fun planner can be found at the Happy Planner:

I hope these videos encourage you today!!

Love and hugs….k 🙂

Pt. 1

Pt. 2

Posted in Miscellaneous, Plan With Me

Today’s Plan With Me: In My Standard #Travelers Notebook

Hey Sweet Friends,

I hope your New Year is starting off well!!

Let’s get organized to tackle all the things this 2021!!

My first steps are goal setting and planning. So here’s this week’s PWM.

You can go find this sticker kit and much more at: or @dekdesigns on Instagram.

Be encouraged and hoping you find joy in your journey!!

Love and prayers….k 🙂

Pt. 1

Pt. 2